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Cages and accessories
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|Disinfect a cage.|
| Sarah_Z |
Hola , vereis quería desinfectar mi jaula pero nose como hacerlo mas o menos , creo que hay que poner detergente , pero por toda la jaula , y los barrotes tambien no ?? Bueno resumiendolo queria que me explicarais como , por que partes de la jaula y con que ?
Muchas gracias a todos .
Since: May / 15/2008
Hi Suzi to disinfect a cage correctly you need to perform the following steps:
1) Take your parakeets out of the cage, but everything inside it, leave it empty
2) Remove all the thick dirt that is in it (dirt of parakeets, pieces of twigs, etc.) all the big things that hinder.
3) We have to be clear that a good disinfection of anything works if we do not clean the cage before, therefore we must CLEAN it first, for this we use the DETERGENT, the detergents are surfactant substances that allow mixing the water with other substances that otherwise they would not, example: water + oil do not mix but if you put detergent in the mixture if they do. Then prepare a good solution of water + detergent and clean the entire cage well, then rinse it.
4) Once clean prepare a DISINFECTANT solution. disinfect = kill all small organisms that cause disease or not. A solution of 70% alcohol + 30% water is a good disinfectant, but use lavandina (hypochlorite) + water or whatever you have on hand, keep in mind that whatever you decide to use you must PACK the cage well with the solution and LET IT ACT for at least 15 minutes. Then rinse well and ready, you have finished disinfecting the cage.
I hope this information helps you.-
Preventive measures - Cleaning and disinfection
It is well known that the Maintenance of all kinds of animals requires regular hygiene and disinfection measures, and in the case of Australian parakeets it is no exception. If these two premises are neglected, in the long run they cannot be avoid infectious diseases.
For this reason, avoiding the appearance and extension of epidemic pathologies through hygiene and disinfection is of great importance for protect the health of human beings and animals.
Disinfection serves to kill disease-causing microorganisms (pathogens), but also to significantly reduce non-pathogens, that is, non-specific ones.
Correct disinfection can reduce the number of germs by almost 0. But, often, the fact that the cause of many of the animal losses is not known makes it difficult to understand the reason why it is necessary to disinfect regularly.
Frequently, the disinfection efficiencyHowever, this is mainly done by those breeders who fear the work involved. The success of the disinfection depends on the correct handling of the disinfectant product, as well as on its correct dosage.
Often in all varieties and types of parakeets, the decrease in the successes of offspring that have already existed for a long time, especially in those of large groups of parakeets, is not linked, as is often assumed, to a nutritional problem or degenerative phenomena, but, above all, it is due yet hygienic problem.
Insufficient cleaning and disinfection measures, as well as the uncontrolled use of antibiotics that this situation usually entails, on the one hand, and, on the other, the accommodation of many birds in a restricted space favor the increase of the most diverse bacteria and pathogens , as well as the selection of species and pathogenic types.
This so-called "germ hospitalism" does not take long to become a determinant of success in breeding (see how to raise parakeets). It can be fought successfully by decreasing population density, as well as, above all, through scrupulous hygiene and disinfection.
Basically, disinfection measures will only be crowned with success if they have been preceded by thorough cleaning. This is intended to eliminate all organic and inorganic substances found in the aviary or aviary, in the breeding grounds, in the breeding cage or in nesting boxes.
Three layers of dirt can be defined:
- Structural dirt from 2 millimeters thick.
- Dirt layer up to 2 millimeters thick.
- Dirt adhered.
By cleaning the two upper layers of dirt must be removed, in order to allow contact between the disinfectant and the germ.
Cleaning has the following effects:
- Wash the germs that are in the dirt.
- It annihilates microorganisms due to the effects of temperature and chemical products.
- Remove the layer of dirt that surrounds microorganisms.
- Prevents dirt particles from inactivating the disinfectant.
First, a mechanical dry cleaning must be performed. The subsequent cleaning in water serves to remove dirt that is strongly adhered. It is recommended to soak both cages and accessories in a detergent solution. After using the detergent it is essential to rinse or wash thoroughly with clear water.
Before starting the disinfection in water, all surfaces and accessories must be dried, so that the concentration of the disinfectant is not altered by the water that may have remained in them and so that the disinfectant does not form unwanted reactions with the detergent
The disinfectant must be applied uniformly and in sufficient quantity on all parts of the breeding grounds or the aviary. The best way to achieve this is by using the sprayers that are used for plant protection products. Naturally, such a sprayer must never have been used before for a pesticide.
If the room is heated, the effect of most disinfectants is greater. Often the effects are not greater by increasing the dose but by increasing the temperature. For this reason, these products should be used in the form of a hot solution. It is recommended to use cresols or bleach instead of products based on formaldehyde when the temperature is below 5 ° C.
The necessary time of action of the disinfectants differs according to the method of application and the product used, here it is necessary to take into account the indications of the manufacturers especially also with a view to the relocation of the birds. The shops offer disinfectants made from the most diverse substances.
Products containing formaldehyde are not corrosive, they only irritate the mucous membranes by their penetrating smell. When the temperature is adequate, the formalin quickly converts to gas, which penetrates well into all the slits and cracks. In parakeets in a few cases irritations have been found in the mucous membranes. Chlorine-emitting products, such as lime chloride or chloramine, are also used successfully.
The feeders and drinkers, as well as the feeder tables, accessories and nesting boxes must be cleaned and disinfected at regular intervals. When cages or aviaries are free, proceed to clean and disinfect them immediately. It is recommended to provide a possibility to disinfect the footwear before crossing the entrance door to the breeding grounds.
The disinfection of a natural soil, for example in an outdoor aviary, is especially problematic. The number of germs in the soil flora increases to 10 centimeters (4 inches) deep. The soil protects germs, since solar irradiation and desiccation only act on the surface.
Some germs not only remain alive in moist soils, but with sufficient heat and the corresponding supply of nutrients can also be multiplied. The germs that can cause diseases of the parakeets can live in the soil to a depth of 25 centimeters (10 inches), in this case it simply makes no sense to dig the earth.
Once the upper layer of soil is removed, the lower one has to be treated with chemical disinfectants, it also gives good results to burn it with a butane flame. Soil that has been removed should be replaced by uncontaminated soil or, better yet, by a mixture of sand and gravel.
Is a scrupulous annual disinfection sufficient?
In many specialized books and magazines you can always read again that a large-scale cleaning must be carried out every year or every half year, followed by a disinfection of the entire enclosure including accessories.
For this we must remove all the birds from the enclosure that we are going to disinfect, that is only possible in the hatcheries, where the birds can be temporarily housed in outdoor aviaries or in another enclosure. When an epidemic appears, it is essential to carry out a “general cleaning”.
But it should not be assumed that with such measures much has been done in regard to disinfection, since, just after such "general cleaning" the same birds that were already returned are placed in the aviary or cage. It is certain that there is no group of birds of a certain size that does not have the so-called "permanent carriers".
These birds, which continuously eliminate pathogenic germs, but which in most cases seem completely healthy, may make a new disinfection necessary after a very short time. A balanced battle reigns in the body of these birds: although the immune system keeps germs at bay, so that the disease is not declared openly, it cannot eliminate them completely.
These "permanent carriers" constantly eliminate small amounts of bacteria or viruses. But if, for example, they are in a stress situation (exposures, cage change, etc.), they suddenly become seriously ill because stress weakens their organic defenses and the balance between them and germs has now shifted in favor of the latter. If such a bird is sold, a sudden illness related to the stress of adaptation to the new accommodation and the change of food may appear, which will give the seller a bad name.
Sometimes, these "time bombs" of the aviary are often recognized by the fact that they are often sitting apathetically, but the next day they appear in top form again. However, if there are one or more of these “permanent carriers” in the group of birds, and if daily hygiene is insufficient, a large number of germs will reappear shortly after a large-scale disinfection, and new pathological cases will appear .
In this case, the breeder is baffled since, in his opinion, he has carried out the disinfection very recently. Therefore, optimal hygiene throughout the year is more effective than thorough cleaning and disinfection once or twice a year.
The concept of hygiene in food and drink includes all hygienic problems related to feed, storage, preparation and administration, as well as the supply of drinking water. It is very important to keep what what budgies eat in a correct state of health.
Hygiene of grain feed
Depending on the number of birds that are possessed, it is necessary to store more or less quantity of feed in grain. Many breeders buy the total amount needed for an entire breeding season at one time, so that during the breeding period there is no need to change the type of feed.
When they take it, it must be examined by the breeder. Contamination (mouse droppings), discolorations, mixtures of foreign bodies (ergot), as well as bad smell (moldy) can be found in the simplest way. In such a case, a germination test should be carried out: if most hands germinate well, we will generally have a good quality feed.
Whoever stores a significant amount of feed, should ensure that contamination by mice, harmful insects, mites, molds or fouling by foreign substances is excluded. This is one of the fundamental points within the care of a parakeet.
Unfortunately, mites are very frequently found in feed, which indicates improper storage. The mites do not appear until the humidity of the grain feed is 15 to 17%.
Birds should not be given in any way a grain feed containing mites, since digestive disorders or allergic manifestations cannot be excluded and, however, the nutritional value of the feed is diminished.
Checking if there are mites in the feed is carried out as follows: we take a feeder and fill it so that the feed forms a little pile. We will place this feeder in a quiet place (without shaking) and leave it there overnight.
If the feed contains mites, the next morning the feeder will only be half full, the pile will be gone and the beans will be found on the base. Fungi or molds also pose a great danger to the health of our parakeets.
A distinction is made between the fungi of the spikes, which are already adhered to the cereals when they are harvested and those that appear after harvesting, because of improper storage, during transport, in commerce or at the home of the same user.
Molds already grow with a relative humidity of 80% and from a cereal moisture (substrate moisture) of approximately 13%. When the atmospheric humidity and that of the substrate are still higher, other fungal species develop.
The temperature also influences the growth of fungi, as they grow at quite broad thermal levels, especially between 0 ° C and 45 ° C. At normal storage temperature, about 20 ° C., Fungi still develop relatively slowly.
If temperatures and humidity are higher, fungal growth accelerates considerably. The harmful effects of fungi already appear even before the moldy smell can be perceived or their presence verified: in addition to liver lesions and their carcinogenic effects, irritations can occur in the mucous membranes and kidney lesions.
The limit value given is 10,000 molds per gram of feed, it is considered too high, in our opinion, as a rule, birds should not be given moldy food. Since the risk of mold formation is very high, it is extremely important to store the feed well.
The food purchased must not exceed) a substrate humidity of 15%, however, as a buyer you can not influence that, since there is no possibility of checking it. In the place of storage, the relative humidity of the air must be kept as low as possible, in any case below 70%.
Also, the temperature of the warehouse or pantry should also be as low as possible, and you should try not to exceed 10 ° C. Under these storage conditions, a mite attack is also largely excluded. It is obvious that the feed must be kept separate from chemical products (fertilizer, insecticides or herbicides, etc.).
We prevent at this point the possible enrichment of the food in grain with cod liver oil, although several breeders say that it has given them good results: the possible long-term side effects are still unknown.
On the administration of cod liver oil, the following is stated: "The dangers and the possibility that their administration causes further damage predominate with such force over its advantages that it is necessary to prevent against its use in birds".
Both light and oxygen break down cod liver oil and peroxides that are formed due to the oxidation of fatty acids cause a deficit of vitamin A and vitamin B, liver and myocardial lesions, as well as an overload in the body produced by the high fat content.
Feed hygiene or green food
When birds are given green food, it must be ensured that it has not been treated with phytosanitary products. Nor should green feed be collected for parakeets along high-traffic roads (highways, etc.), due to heavy lead contamination, the same applies to landfills, etc.
Soft feed hygiene
Especially during the warm season you have to be careful when you give the birds I think soft. Said feed must be removed after 2 or 3 hours, since due to its nutrient and moisture content it is a favorable substrate for pathogenic germs to develop.
Soft feed should always be offered in clean containers and should be avoided on the floor of the cage. The feeders for soft food should be washed and disinfected daily.
Drinking water hygiene
It is clear that parakeets have to be offered water that has, at least, the quality of drinking water, regardless of whether the water is taken from the citizen's network or from a well-controlled and own well. An extremely important point to avoid possible parakeet diseases and guarantee your health.
In many cases, the water in the distribution network has a lot of chlorine and before giving it to the parakeets it must be allowed to stand for a few hours. The total number of germs in drinking water should not exceed 100 germs / ml.
In the drinking troughs the number of germs increases strongly. When the pertinent analyzes have been carried out, it has been found in the drinking water of a tube or bottle drinker (in which it was impossible to contaminate with excrement or bath), which had a day in it, the amount of 60,000 at 300,000 germs / ml.
Since in this case water must be considered as a potential transmitter of diseases, special attention must be paid to the hygiene of drinking water. It is essential to change the water daily, once the drinking fountains are clean and disinfected.
Avoid disease transmission by mice or rats
When building aviaries and breeding grounds it is necessary to watch that mice or even rats cannot penetrate. That is difficult, since the constant supply of feed and dry, warm winter enclosures, almost magically attract harmful rodents.
The breeding grounds are visited, above all, by the house mouse. It is rare to observe other representatives of the murid genus. The enclosures or breeding facilities are usually free of rats: these are, above all, in the vicinity of water, landfills or large zoological facilities.
If we take away hiding places and food from harmful rodents, they disappear by themselves after a short time. In the breeding grounds you can quickly check the presence of mice by their own smell, after a while they will also find their droppings.
In addition to destroying considerable amounts of feed, damaging the breeding facilities, as well as disturbing the birds, especially at night and during the incubation period, mice are especially harmful for transmitting diseases. Our post can help you in this aspect how to know if a parakeet is sick.
The house mouse can transmit various tapeworms, histoplasmosis, favus or tinea favosa, plague, rash, salmonella, tularemia, pseudotuberculosis, lymphocytic choriomeningitis and sodoku (rat bite fever). Most of these diseases are not only dangerous for birds but also for people. For our birds the greatest danger is represented by the Salmonella typhimurium and pseudotuberculosis.
The danger of the domestic mouse for the parakeet pups should remain because of their early sexual maturity - about 50 days - the short gestation of 20 to 21 days, the large number of pups per litter (as a rule of 5 to 9) , as well as the sequence of births that take place throughout the year.
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